Rules for Quoting Sources
Bazerman, C. (1995). The Informed Author: Use of Sources in the Disciplines (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. When referring to secondary sources, such as science books and journal articles, try to put other people`s ideas in your own words whenever possible. These documents will help you avoid plagiarism by teaching you how to properly incorporate information from published sources into your own writing. While you should use sources creatively and flexibly to generate ideas and refine your argument, there are strict rules about how sources should be recognized in your project. Click on the links for more explanations of the different rules. If you can, I recommend finding the original source (Durkin) and citing it directly.
It is always best to get information directly from the source. If you use sources in your articles, you can avoid plagiarism by knowing what needs to be documented. College writing often involves incorporating information from published sources into your own writing to add credibility and authority – this process is essential for researching and producing new knowledge. If you are quoting a work directly, you must indicate the author, the year of publication and the page number of the reference (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a period of several pages, with page numbers separated by a hyphen). The rules for bulk citation formatting depend on the citation style, but if you are quoting or borrowing directly from another work, you must include the page number at the end of the citation in parentheses. Use the abbreviation “p”. (for one page) or “pp”. (for multiple pages) before the page number(s) is specified. Use a hyphen for page ranges. For example, you could write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp.
199-201). This information is repeated below. If you are referring to an idea from another work, but you are NOT quoting the material directly or referring to an entire book, article, or other work, you only need to refer to the author and year of publication, not the page number in your reference in the text. Direct citations from sources that do not contain pages should not refer to a page number. Instead, you can refer to another logical identifier: a paragraph, chapter number, section number, table number, or something else. Older works (such as religious texts) may also contain special place identifiers such as verse numbers. In short, choose a replacement for page numbers that makes sense for your source. As a general rule, citations should take up no more than 5-10% of your article.
When in doubt, ask your instructor or supervisor which quote is appropriate in your area. But if a passage does a good job of expressing, explaining, or defining something, and it would be very difficult to paraphrase without changing the meaning or losing the weakening of the effect of the idea, it is worth quoting it directly. To convince the reader of your argument, interpretation, or position on a topic, it is often helpful to include quotes that support your point of view. Citations from primary sources (e.g. interview protocols or historical documents) are particularly credible as evidence. Use [sic] (meaning “such” or “such”) to indicate that there is an error in the source you are citing and that it is not yours. A direct quotation reproduces verbatim words from another work or from your own previously published work. It is better to paraphrase sources rather than quoting them directly, as paraphrasing allows you to adapt the material to the context of your article and writing style. If you are quoting text that paraphrases or summarizes other sources and cites them in parentheses, the APA and Chicago recommend keeping the citations as part of the citation.
However, MLA recommends omitting quotation marks in a citation: if you quote text that itself contains another quote, this is called a nested quote or a quote within a citation. This can happen, for example, when dialogues from a novel are quoted. In general, only use direct quotes if you have a good reason. Most of your paper should be in your own words. Also, it`s often common to cite sources more broadly if you`re writing a humanities article and summarize from sources if you`re writing in the social or natural sciences, but there are always exceptions. In scientific topics, the information itself is more important than how it was expressed, so the citation should generally be kept to a minimum. In the humanities, however, well-chosen citations are often essential for good work. Chicago Style uses Chicago footnotes to cite sources. A note identified by a superscript number immediately after the citation indicates the author, title and page number, or sometimes more complete information. Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources cited in the text must appear in the list of references at the end of the book.
Use ellipsis (.) to indicate an omission in a quotation, but not at the beginning or end, unless it is not obvious that you are quoting only part of the whole. Citation is an important technique for incorporating information from external sources into academic writing. When using citations, it is important that you also cite the original reference from which you took the quote, as your citations will provide your reader with a map of the research you are conducting. To effectively use quotes in your writing, you need to carefully consider the value of incorporating someone else`s own words into advancing your own argument. Keep in mind that quoting is just a way to incorporate someone else`s work into your own discussion. See the SLC “Paraphrasing Techniques” and “Summary” documents for ideas on other ways to incorporate sources into your writing. Most authors realize that they must cite a source when quoting a memorable phrase or phrase. I`m sure you`d thank Mark Twain when he quotes, “The coldest winter I`ve ever had was a summer in San Francisco.” And you probably also understand that you don`t need to quote words that are very common about you. When writing about Hamlet, you don`t need to put the words “Hamlet” or “Shakespeare” in quotation marks or cite a source for them, even if you`ve read sources that use those words. But if a word or two is used distinctively, so that the author creates a new concept or applies it to a new topic, you need to cite the source.
When John Baker redefines the meaning of the mirror test by saying that chimpanzees` consciousness of their reflection is not complete consciousness but a limited “kinesthetic self-concept,” it is clear that these two words should appear as technical terms of art in quotation marks in your work. Even if neither “kinesthetic” nor “self-concept” are unusual in themselves, they belong to the author as an expression. But even a single non-specialized term – such as “consilience” – can be linked to an author (in this case, E.O. Wilson) by an influential publication, in which case you should enclose the single word in quotation marks, at least when you first mention it in your text. Spatt, B. (1999). Writing from sources (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin`s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371. If you`re citing a source that doesn`t have a page number (such as a website), consult your style guide to determine the best way to link to your source. For example, MLA and APA suggest indicating the relevant paragraph number or title.
In academic writing, there are three main situations where citation is the best choice: Include short direct prose quotes in the text of your work and put them in double quotation marks: General knowledge specific to a topic is “common” only in a specific field or field. It may contain facts, theories or methods familiar to readers of this discipline. For example, you may not need to cite a reference to Piaget`s developmental stages in an educational class document, or cite a source for your description of a method commonly used in a biology report, but you should make sure that this information is known enough to be shared by your readers. [The terms “democratic equity” and “consensus building” are already in quotation marks in Dahl`s sentence.] You can begin the citation with a warning sentence that includes the author`s last name followed by the publication date in parentheses. One of your responsibilities as a writer is to guide your reader through your copy. Don`t just drop quotes in your document and leave it up to the reader to make connections. You do not need to cite a source for material considered common knowledge: the Latin term “sic” is used to indicate an error (factual or grammatical) in a quote. This shows the reader that the error comes from the quoted material, not from your own typo. You can follow the instructions here on how to manage quotes in quotes. Basically, you use another type of quotation marks to place the citation in the larger quote (single quotes if you used double for the larger quote). Flores et al.
(2018) described how they addressed researchers` potential biases when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color: In Julius Caesar, Antony begins his famous speech with “Friends, Romans, compatriots, lend me your ears; / I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him” (III.ii.75-76). According to Ross (1993), poor children at the turn of the century received little motherhood in our sense of the word. Motherhood is defined by economic status, and among the poor, a mother`s primary responsibility is not to stimulate the minds of her children or promote their emotional growth, but to provide food and shelter to meet the basic needs of physical survival.